As elements of the antioxidant system, cofactors of enzymes, components of transcription factors, and epigenetic modulators, micronutrients, such as vitamins and trace elements, influence various metabolic processes that are directly associated with immune functions. Specifically, the vitamins C and D have been shown to have significance immune function. Therefore, the objective of this review is to elucidate interactions between micronutrients and the immune system. In the initial section of this review, we present a general overview of interactions between the immune system and micronutrients, with a focus on the immunobiologically relevant functions of vitamin C. Immune competent cells accumulate vitamin C against a concentration gradient, with a close relationship between vitamin C supply and immune cell activity, especially phagocytosis activity and T-cell function. Accordingly, one of the consequences of vitamin C deficiency is impaired resistance to various pathogens, while an enhanced supply increases antibody activity and infection resistance.
Keywords: Micronutrients, vitamin C, immune system, infections, phagocytosis, Energy, nutrient, turnover rates, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, ascorbic acid, calciferol, proliferation, DNA replication, immune cells, zinc, selenium, folic acid, biotinylation, ribosylation, gluconic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, hydroxylation reactions, catalyzed, tryptophan, serotonin, biosynthesis, catecholamines, cholecystokinin, vasopressin, oxytocin, neutrophils, oral dose, skin reaction, meningococcal meningitis, ascorbate, Phagocyte chemotaxis, lymphocyte proliferation, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, fungal infections, Candida albicans, Salmonella gallinarum, Herpes simplex, antioxidant potential, tetrahydrobiopterin, modulating, water-soluble, antioxidant, hydrophilic phase, lysine, methionine, granulocytes
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