The COP9 Signalosome (CSN), a highly conserved eight-subunit complex, is found in all higher eukaryotes. It contains eight core subunits, named CSN1 - 8, in order of decreasing molecular weight. The CSN is structurally similar to the regulatory lid of 26S proteasome and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3. CSN is also now known to play an essential role in signaling processes controlling many aspects of plant and Drosophila development. Taken together, the various genetic studies demonstrate that the CSN is involved at the nexus between multiple signal inputs and a variety of downstream regulatory cascades controlling specific aspects of cellular differentiation. Research in various organisms has converged onto the notion that CSN is biochemically linked to ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. Other proposed roles for the CSN include regulating eIF3 and kinase signaling. CSN is itself is both a target for kinase activity and associates with and coordinates activity of kinases. CSN-associated kinases. This kinase activity further regulates the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of various transcription factors. This review concentrates on the proposed activity of the CSN as a regulator of protein phosphorylation.