Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, the “simple flu” or HIV and HBV, are killing more than 50,000 people a day according to estimations by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Consequently, the development of biologically active agents in general, such as antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, is of great importance. Hand in hand with the understanding of the mechanisms of biological agents, structures carrying sugar moieties have become increasingly important during the last decades. This review will cover the most recent developments in the field of new antibiotics and synthetic agents containing carbohydrates which are active against tuberculosis and malaria. In addition, compounds having antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer properties will be examined. Compounds such as aminoglycosides, iminosugars, carbacycles, nucleosides, and other selected substance classes will be considered.