This study aimed to determine whether the influence of the lipid profiles as a risk factor was different between patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Two hundred and fifty-six consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography because of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were retrospectively analyzed. They included 188 patients with CAD and 68 patients with chest pain syndrome (controls). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that DM, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) / high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, remnant-like lipoprotein particle-cholesterol (RLP-C) and RLP-C / HDL-C ratio could discriminate CAD patients from the controls. The most powerful discriminating factor was DM (OR: 4.17, 95% CI: 1.82-9.57, p=0.0007). In the subgroup of non-diabetic patients, hypertension, LDL-C / HDL-C ratio, RLP-C and RLP-C / HDL-C ratio could discriminate CAD. In diabetic patients, however, only TG could discriminate CAD. These results suggest that the contribution of dyslipidemia in the development of CAD may be different in patients with and without DM, at least in the Japanese population.