Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent orexigen peptide widely produced and distributed in arcuate neurons in the hypothalamus, is a promising candidate for the control of appetitive ingestive behavior. In mammals, the signaling is mediated via at least five different cell surface receptors, denoted as Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5 and Y6. Obesity is an important public health problem in the world, particularly in developed societies, and has taken on pandemic proportions. The therapeutics of obesity, including appetite suppressants, has increased 453% over the past decade, although issues concerning safety, efficacy, and little knowledge of the pharmacological activity result in the still modest effects of the anti-obesity drugs presently used. Ligands for Y receptors may be of benefit for the treatment of obesity, and recent findings have indicated a promising role of Y2 and Y4 in protecting against diet-induced obesity. This review highlights the supporting evidence therapeutic potential of Y2 and Y4 receptors antagonists as additional intervention to treat human obesity.