Chronic myeloid leukemia has become a paradigm for the discovery of target therapeutic approaches in the field of onco-hematology. Recognition of the tyrosine kinase activity of the p210Bcr-Abl oncoprotein led to the development of compounds targeting against BCR-ABL and then controlling the leukemic proliferation. Imatinib mesylate, one of the first tyrosine kinase inhibitors developed, was found effective and safe. According to five-years experience with this drug, it is recommended that the golden standard for initial treatment of newly diagnosis chronic myeloid leukemia patients should be 400 mg Imatinib daily. In this brief review, we discuss the current tools for the effective management of chronic myeloid leukemia with Imatinib, providing the updated results of IRIS and RIGHT clinical trials and then the suggestions how Imatinib-treated patients should be monitored.