Bronchiolitis Obliterans (OB) is a potentially life threatening, uncommon, but severe form of chronic obstructive lung disease in children, that results from lower airway injury following a respiratory infection. Clinically, it is characterized by rapid respirations, rales, wheezing and hypoxemia for at least 30 days after the initial injury. Histologically, OB is characterized by luminal obstruction with inflammation, granulation tissue, fibrosis and obliteration of the small airways and bronchiectasis. A number of respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza, and particularly adenovirus are associated with severe lung injury leading to OB. This mini-review will seek to provide an up to date, concise review of the currently available literature and research, in the area of adenovirus associated Bronchiolitis Obliterans in children.