Calprotectin, a protein composed by two subunits of 8 and 14 kD respectively, is released by neutrophils in the biological fluids under inflammatory states. For instance, detection of calprotectin in faeces represents a diagnostic tool in the case of inflammatory bowel disease. Quite interestingly, calprotectin is increased in the stool of healthy newborns from day three up to day thirty and, physiologically, this increase may be interpreted as a defense mechanism against yeast and fungi. Therapeutic attempts at inhibiting the deleterious effect of calprotectin have been experimentally made by using lycoricinidol. This natural compound is able to hamper the calprotectin-induced apoptosis on the one hand. On the other hand, the same compound plays a prophylactic role in the course of experimental arthritis in rats.