Chronic renal failure may be associated with a wide spectrum of respiratory disorders, varying from relatively minor derangements in pulmonary function testing, to frank pulmonary edema. Although complications like uremic lung are becoming increasingly rare in these patients with timely initiation of dialysis, dialysis itself can also exert a transient deleterious influence on gas exchange. Moreover, patients with chronic renal failure often exhibit disorders of the chemical control of breathing that probably contribute to sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep -disordered breathing is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure, with a reported prevalence possibly exceeding 70% for end-stage renal disease. Sleep disorders, have a serious impact in the quality of life in chronic renal failure, and are probably associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The role of polysomnography and of active intervention in sleep disorders in these patients needs to be further elucidated.