Brain postnatal development is modulated by adaptation and experience. Experience-mediated changes increase neuronal activity leading to increased metabolic demands that involve adaptive changes including ones at the microvascular network. Therefore, vascular environment plays a key role in central nervous system (CNS) development and function in health and disease. Trophic factors are crucial in CNS development and cell survival in adults. They participate in protection and proliferation of neuronal, glial and endothelial cells. Among the most important molecules are: the proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin growth factor (IGF-I) and the glycoprotein erythropoietin (EPO). We propose the term angioglioneurins to define molecules acting on the three components of the neurogliovascular unit. We have previously reported the effects of environmental modifications on the three components of the neurogliovascular unit during the postnatal development. We have also described the main role played by VEGF in the experience-induced postnatal changes. Angioglioneurin administration, alone or in combination with other neuroprotective strategies such as environmental enrichment, has been proposed as a non-invasive therapeutic strategy against several CNS diseases.
Keywords: Angioglioneurins, environmental enrichment, neurogliovascular unit, neuroprotection, neurorestoration, VEGF, Vascular, neuroglialvascular, postnatal, perineural, CNS, enucleation, tetrodotoxin, somatosensory, cortex, Hebb
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