Lung transplantation has evolved as an accepted therapy in selected adults and children with end-stage lung disease. Outcomes following lung transplantation have improved in the recent era with a 5-year survival of > 70% and an overall good functional status of surviving recipients. Many of the advances have been achieved by the use of modern immunosuppressive agents. To date, multiple strategies exist that may be employed when utilizing immunosuppression. These agents can be used in a variety of roles that may include induction, maintenance or rescue therapy, many of which are illustrated in this review including the current evidence to support their use. Infections in lung transplant recipients remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Special considerations are required with the substantial burden of chronic infection in candidates with CF lung disease before transplantation, which are discussed. Furthermore, recent progress and advances in prevention and treatment of post-transplantation infectious complications are detailed. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction remains to be the burden of lung transplantation in the long-term. Unfortunately, there is no well-established therapy to address it. However, therapy attempts include change/augmentation of immunosupression, use of neomacrolides and extracorporeal photopheresis, all of which are reviewed in detail.
Keywords: Lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis, immunosupression, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, chronic lung allograft dysfunction, alemtuzumab, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, post-transplantation pneumonia, Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
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