Thanks to the recent advances in cancer care, more and more young women can survive but suffer from infertility as a result of cancer treatment that had to be submitted. There are a variety of methods to preserve fertility, as chemoprotection, ovariopexy, and some assisted reproductive technologies, although some of these are promising but still highly experimental techniques. Cryopreservation of embryos for example is already established, while the oocyte banking is still considered an experimental practice. Many experiments have been conducted around the world on the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and maturation of ovarian follicles, in an attempt to demonstrate its potential use in fertility preservation. Although in recent years there has been major improvements in the preservation of ovarian tissue, there are still many unresolved technical issues related to these procedures. In this chapter we examine the recent evidence of the pathophysiology of chemotherapy / radiotherapy-induced gonadal toxicity, and recent data regarding the indications and results of the techniques used to preserve fertility in women with cancer.
Keywords: Cancer patients, tumor treatments, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, ovarian failure, oocytes, fertility preservation, cryopreservation, ovariopexy, primordial follicles
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