Oxidative stress has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease whose main modifiable risk factor is the abnormal level of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. Thus, the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis together with the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species content could partially prevent the occurrence of atherosclerotic phenomena. Owing to the ability exerted by some antioxidants to modulate the activity and/or the protein levels of 3- hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthetic pathway), their use as additional approach to the management of hypercholesterolemia should be taken into account. Here we provide an up-dated overview of the antioxidants whose ability to affect 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase either in the short- or in the long-term regulations has been reported.
Keywords: Antioxidant, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, HMGR, statins, hypercholesterolemia, reactive oxygen species, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, coagulation, oxidative stress, diabetes, coronary artery disease, peroxidative damage, homeostasis
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