Phytoestrogens are highly bioactive compounds that modulate a wide range of signalling pathways. Among these are the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway and potential processes that are mediated by an activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling cascade. Isoflavones and indoles have been reported to be dual modulators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the estrogen receptor. The effect of these compounds on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor still requires further investigation, but both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated modulation of this pathway. Implications are difficult to derive because this field requires more research but could include modulation of cell cycle regulation, hormone receptor pathways and reproduction, chemoprevention and cancer, and xenobiotic metabolism. Various studies have presented the aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a modulator of all of these functions, and this could be also caused by isoflavones and indoles as selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators.
Keywords: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, cell cycle, estrogen receptor, indoles, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, xenobiotic metabolism, chemoprevention, receptor modulators, bioactive compounds
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