Apoptosis or progress of programmed cell death is a tightly regulated process which plays an important role in various cardiovascular diseases particularly in myocardial infarction, reperfusion injury, and heart failure. Over the past two decades, investigations of several pathways have broadened our understanding of programmed cell death. Many anti-apoptotic interventions have targeted ischemia- reperfusion, however only a limited number have been considered at the chronic stage of heart failure. Endogenous inhibitors, caspase inhibitors, PARP-1 inhibitors, as well as various other agents have been implicated as anti-apoptotic interventions. This review summarizes the apoptotic pathways associated with heart failure, discusses the current anti-apoptotic interventions available and reviews the clinical implications.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Heart failure, Caspase inhibitors, Endogenous inhibitors, Anti-apoptotic interventions, Caspase, Endogenous, zymogens, Cardiovascular, congestive, executioner, hypertrophy, diabetes, systolic, reperfusion, myocardial, mitochondrial, proteases
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