The aim of this article is to present an overview of new and useful silicon-based methodologies valuable for the selective construction of highly functionalized mono- and bisphosphonic acids of high synthetic and biological importance. The reactions of trimethylsilyl phosphites with alkyl halides, carbonyl compounds and imines are presented as a platform for developing new approaches to biologically active hydroxy-, amino-, fluoro-substituted mono- and bisphosphonates. The second part of the review consists of a presentation of methodology involving the fluoride-induced formation of α-phosphonylated carbanions from 1-trimethylsilyl methylphosphonates. The third part of the review describes the methodology employing silylated phosphonate carbanions. Application of trimethylsilyl as protecting group is discussed in separate section.
Keywords: Silicon, phosphonic acids, bisphosphonic acids, organosilicon-mediated synthesis, phosphites, herbicides, pesticides, antibiotics, antiviral, antitumor agents, enzyme inhibitors, calcium metabolism, osteolysis, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), phosphocarnitine
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