Introduction: Cocaine has become a noticeable part of the European drug scene and is the second most commonly used illicit drug among the general population. Craving is a core issue in cocaine dependence and is strongly associated with lapse and/or relapse. However, no craving scale exists in French. The objective of our study was to assess the reliability and validity of a French language version of the 10-item Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief (CCQ-Brief).
Methods: A total of 131 individuals ranging in age from 18 to 65 years were enrolled in a 12-month outpatient treatment program in 2009. The participants were seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. They completed the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the French version of the CCQ-Brief. At the end of the interview, a Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGIS) was completed by a clinician blind to the subjects treatment group. We evaluated the internal consistency of the French CCQ-Brief using Cronbachs α coefficient and the correlation of each item with the total scale using the Pearsons coefficient. We conducted an exploratory factorial analysis followed by a scree test. Only items with factor loading > 0.3 were retained. The convergent validity of the French CCQ-Brief was assessed using Pearsons correlation between the CCQ-Brief and the CGIS.
Results: The mean (SD) score of the 10-item CCQ-Brief was 3.4 (1.5). Cronbachs α coefficient 0.88 and remained high even when an item was deleted (ranging from 0.86 to 0.88), indicating that this tool possesses a high internal consistency. Each item exhibited a strong correlation with the total score ranging from 0.62 to 0.83. All items presented factor loadings ranged from 0.47 to 0.83. The correlation between the CCQ-Brief and the CGIS was high (r=0.49, p < 0.0001), indicating a sufficient convergent validity.
Discussion: The French version of the CCQ-Brief is a reliable and valid instrument that can provide a comprehensive assessment of cocaine craving in treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients.
Keywords: Cocaine, craving, craving questionnaire, addiction, pharmacological treatments, cannabis, euphoria, electrophysiologival, benzodiazepines, schizophrenia, Demographics, methodological, anticipation, distressing, sociodemographic, Psychometric, polydrug, impairment
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