Gender Differences in the Clinical Presentation of Heart Disease

Author(s): Peter Collins, Cristiana Vitale, Ilaria Spoletini, Giuseppe Barbaro

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 17 , Issue 11 , 2011

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


The clinical presentation of heart disease is different between men and women and this distinction is pivotal for a correct diagnosis and an adequate treatment. However, the definition of symptoms classically associated with heart disease is mainly based on the characteristics of those reported in men. Chest pain or chest discomfort in women are therefore often regarded as “atypical” and these symptoms tend to be misdiagnosed and under- treated. Further, women are less likely to receive appropriate invasive and non invasive investigations. They are less likely to refer for medical help and tend to present late in the process of the cardiovascular disease, with delays in the start of effective treatment. Therefore, a gender-specific assessment of cardiovascular risk is strongly advised for patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of heart disease.

Keywords: Coronary disease, angina, heart disease, women, misdiagnosed, symptomatology, atypical, palpitations, dyspnea, scapula, angiograms, prognosis, dyslipidemia, atherogenic, stratification, diastolic, systolic, intramural

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2011
Page: [1056 - 1058]
Pages: 3
DOI: 10.2174/138161211795656927
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 5