Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that continues to present as a major health problem worldwide. It is characterized by absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and/or insulin action and is associated with chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Many studies suggest a central role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of this multi-faceted metabolic disorder. This has prompted investigations in the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. In this review we briefly summarize oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and then focus on the findings resulting from human clinical trials where antioxidants were studied as an adjuvant to standard diabetes treatment during the last ten years. A literature search using PubMed (last ten years) was performed using the following terms: vitamin E, vitamin C, coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid, L-carnitine, ruboxistaurin or LY 333531 and diabetes. This search was limited to human clinical trials. We conclude there is not any established benefit for antioxidant use in the management of diabetic complications. Therefore, routine vitamin or mineral supplementation is not generally recommended in human diabetes.
Keywords: Anti-Oxidants, Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, Chronic Metabolic Disorder, Insulin, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Coenzyme Q10, Alpha Lipoic Acid, L-Carnitine, Reactive Oxygen Species, Antioxidants in the Treatment of Diabetes, Antioxidants
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