Due to the presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the intrinsic complex structure of brain, there are several challenges to overcome in the treatment of brain diseases, for both diagnosis and targeting. The advancement of fast-growing nanotechnology provides many novel tools and creative ideas that can be used to solve these challenges. In the past decades, nanoparticles have been successfully employed as carriers for targeting drug delivery. The nanoparticles can deliver magnetic/imaging agent or a drug molecule specifically to the target site with a much higher concentration, and thus improve the efficiency of detection and treatment of the disease than traditional methods. Recently, the application of magnetic nanoparticles for diagnosis and targeting in brain has attracted significant attention. Many breakthroughs in this field have been demonstrated, and new inspiring conceptual ideas have been proposed. This review describes recent exciting advancements in magnetic nanoparticle based diagnosis and targeting drug delivery for the treatment of brain diseases. The mechanisms of magnetic nanoparticles-assisted diagnosis are discussed as well as the advantages of using nanoparticlesbased approaches for targeting drug delivery through brain barrier.
Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles, Brain disease, MRI, Targeting drug delivery, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, Mag-netic resonance imaging (MRI), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomo-graphy (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Computed Tomography (CT), Diffuse Optical Tomography, infrared light, radiation therapy, photody-namic therapy, bacteria, hydrophilic molecules, monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles, gadolinium-loaded polymer nanoparticles, Salmonella typhi, Herpes simplex virus, chemical vapor deposition, heparin, endothelial cells, transferrin receptor, chlorotoxin
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