The ultimate aim of therapy or vaccine design against HIV is to eliminate ongoing virus replication or prevent HIV infection. The task at hand is daunting given the wide array of HIV variants circulating and the immense degree of variation found within the virus, especially in the envelope glycoprotein. HIV utilizes the CD4 receptor and a range of 7 transmembrane chemokine coreceptors for cell entry, specifically CCR5 and CXCR4. These receptors provide a number of targets for therapy design, however, the finding that multiple receptors allow for viral entry suggests that targeting one may cause the virus to swirch to using another receptor. The molecular interactions directing coreceptor usage are complex and can involve the same modifications associated with escape from the effect of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), indicating that they are not unrelated and can in all likelihood impact on each other. Furthermore, a large array of other receptors, other than CD4, CCR5 and/or CXCR4 can interact with HIV with consequences for HIV tranmssion as well as disease progression.
Keywords: HIV, CD4, CCR5, CXCR4, HIV-1 (co)Receptors, Vaccine, glycoprotein, CD4 receptor, chemokine, neutralizing antibodies, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, gp120/41, Maraviroc, Selzentry, Celsentri, C-type lectins, M-tropic, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein, CXC-chemokine receptor LESTER, fusin, G-protein coupled receptors, R5X4, X4 phenotype, serine, threonine, phosphorylation, GPCR, CC-chemokines, MIP-1, hematopoiesis, cardiogenesis, MHC-class-I epitopes, N linked glycosylation, glycan shield, TNX-355, Hu5A8, hu-PBM-NOD-SCID mice
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