Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation.
Keywords: Genetic engineering, genome, plastid transformation, plastome sequencing, engineering, transformation, plastome, Plastid, photosynthesis, mRNAs, chloroplast, ptDNA, DNA, Chlamydomonas reindhartii, EPSP synthase, transgenes, progeny, (PEG), Nicotiana tabacum, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, ROCT, Oidium lycopersicon, CMO, (BADH), NaCl, TetC, TSP, CSFV, BACE, EDA, FMDV
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