Cardiac function is compromised by oxidative stress which occurs upon exposing the heart to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) for a prolonged period. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated during I/R incur extensive damage to the myocardium and result in subcellular organelle remodeling. The cardiac nucleus, glycocalyx, myofilaments, sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemma, and mitochondria are affected by ROS during I/R injury. On the other hand, brief periods of ischemia followed by reperfusion, or ischemic preconditioning (IPC), have been shown to be cardioprotective against oxidative stress by attenuating the cellular damage and alterations of subcellular organelles caused by subsequent I/R injury. Endogenous defense mechanisms, such as antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, are activated by IPC and thus prevent damage caused by oxidative stress. Although these cardioprotective effects of IPC against I/R injury are considered to be a consequence of changes in the redox state of cardiomyocytes, IPC is considered to promote the production of NO which may protect subcellular organelles from the deleterious actions of oxidative stress. The article is intended to focus on the I/R-induced oxidative damage to subcellular organelles and to highlight the cardioprotective effects of IPC. In addition, the actions of various endogenous cardioprotective interventions are discussed to illustrate that changes in the redox state due to IPC are cardioprotective against I/R injury to the heart.
Keywords: Cardioprotection, ischemia-reperfusion injury, ischemic preconditioning, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, subcellular organelles, ischemia-reperfusion, paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, thrombolytic, Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), pro-inflammatory, Activation of sarcolemmal K+-ATP channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum, glutathione peroxidase, cytoprotective prostaglandins, troponin I, SERCA, tryptophan, bi-phasic effect, SL phospholipase D, cardiomyocyte, anesthetized, sulfonylurea, NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase, S-nitrosation, phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Glyceraldehyde, CARDIOPROTECTIVE, diacylglycerol, cardiomyocytes, isozymes, Glutathione (GSH), peroxynitrate, radical threshold, Hyperoxia, myocardium, sodium nitroprusside, HSP90, pro-apoptotic factors, Thioreduxin, transplantation
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport