This article reviews the current techniques employed to assess endothelial dysfunction in different categories of smokers. Simple but effective methods to assess regional and local properties of large arteries for epidemiologic studies are firstly discussed. After, more complex but accurate image-based methods are described. In particular, the role of high resolution magnetic resonance to quantify, in a single examination, vascular function at different sites of peripheral and central arteries is summarized. Finally, the role of positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance flow mapping is described to assess myocardial microcirculation at rest and under external stressors.
Keywords: Imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, positron emission tomography, endothelial disfunction, smoking-related cardiovascular disease
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