Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread health problem in the world and anaemia of renal origin is a common problem. Anaemia associated with CKD covers significant risk for faster progression of chronic renal failure, decreased quality of life, and clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. The mainstay of anaemia treatment secondary to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has become erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). More than 90 % of ESRD patients maintained on dialysis respond to traditional recombinant human erythropoietin (rHU EPO) or to EPO analogues, also called “biosimilars”. Iron deficiency often co-exists in dialysis patients and must be evaluated and treated to reduce ESA requirements. Partial, but not complete correction of renal anaemia is associated with improved outcomes in patients with CKD. The use of ESAs does carry risks such as hypertension, pure red cell aplasia, or cancer, and these agents need to be used judiciously.