Biocatalysis in nonaqueous media currently constitutes a promising research area which has already demonstrated its potential in numerous and varied applications. Several possibilities exist for the analysis of a wide range of poorly water-soluble analytes present in samples of food, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals and cosmetic products, among others. The idea of assembling this kind of biocatalysis with flow management approaches clearly seems to be advantageous since it permits confined, precise and reliable analysis within a shorter timeframe while minimising human exposure to organic solvents and toxic effluent production. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of flowing stream systems comprising immobilized enzymes in nonaqueous media. Particular emphasis is devoted to categorising the enzymatic preparations operating in an organic environment: enzyme electrodes and enzyme reactors. The main approaches exploiting the use of immobilized enzymes in water-restricted environments using flow injection analysis for analytical purposes are presented in detail and possible future trends are discussed.
Keywords: Biocatalysis, Organic media, Flow injection analysis, Immobilization, Enzyme electrodes, Enzyme reactors
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