Small heat shock proteins(sHSPs), with a small molecular mass of 12-43 kDa, are molecular chaperones that protect cells against stress by assisting them in the correct folding of denatured proteins and thus prevent aggregation of misfolded proteins. During the past several years, there has been an increasing interest in the relationship between sHSPs and neuropathy. sHSPs have emerged as a particularly potent neuroprotectant in diverse neurological disorders. Therefor, in this review, we will focus on the expression of sHSPs in different neurological disorders, and discuss the recent findings of the biological implications of sHSPs in physiological and pathological processes in these diseases. Novel therapeutic strategies aiming at restoring sHSPs in neuropathy will also be presented.