Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, which is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Low HDL cholesterol concentrations reflect a dysregulation in HDL metabolism, which is determined by the concerted action of different proteins, including cholesterol ester transfer protein, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, endothelial and lipoprotein lipase, phospholipid transfer protein, and hepatic lipase, as well as different receptors, including the scavenger receptor class B type I and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and G1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is besides a dysregulation in HDL metabolism, also associated with dysfunctional HDL: HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport as well as the anti-oxidative and endothelial-protective features of HDL are impaired in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The first part of the present review gives an overview of how type 2 diabetes mellitus affects the expression and/or activity of receptors and proteins involved in HDL metabolism and how different diabetes-associated factors influence the functionality of HDL. The second part of the review focuses on describing the newest insights in the impact of HDL on glucose metabolism and on diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, high-density lipoprotein, dysfunction, remodeling, glucose metabolism, endothelial dysfunction, diabetic cardiopathy
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