Motivated by the challenge of risk assessment in a heterogeneous population and guided by advances in our knowledge of the pathobiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), basic and clinical scientists have maintained substantial interest in the development and application of novel biomarkers for risk stratification of CVD. In particular, strategies to identify and combine multiple biomarkers, which may reflect diverse pathobiological contributors to the onset and complications of CVD, have been arising as an approach to improve more effectively the risk assessment and target therapy. Moreover, comparative evaluations of novel markers are necessary to estimate these candidates for integration into present and future strategies. In this review we consider the recent in-depth knowledge and advances with the use of systemic biomarkers in the area of CVD with special attention on inflammatory markers and those that can predict an individual arteriosclerotic disease stage.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, systemic biomarkers, diagnosis, prognosis, atherosclerosis, risk prediction, risk factors, coronary heart disease, inflammation
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport