Diabetes mellitus (DM) impacts a significant portion of the worlds population and care for this disorder places an economic burden on the gross domestic product for any particular country. Furthermore, both Type 1 and Type 2 DM are becoming increasingly prevalent and there is increased incidence of impaired glucose tolerance in the young. The complications of DM are protean and can involve multiple systems throughout the body that are susceptible to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and apoptotic cell injury. For these reasons, innovative strategies are necessary for the implementation of new treatments for DM that are generated through the further understanding of cellular pathways that govern the pathological consequences of DM. In particular, both the precursor for the coenzyme ß-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), nicotinamide, and the growth factor erythropoietin offer novel platforms for drug discovery that involve cellular metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory cell control. Interestingly, these agents and their tightly associated pathways that consist of cell cycle regulation, protein kinase B, forkhead transcription factors, and Wnt signaling also function in a broader sense as biomarkers for disease onset and progression.
Keywords: Aging, biomarkers, diabetes, erythropoietin, FoxO3a, oxidative stress, sirtuins, Wnt
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