This study is focused on the links between the major products of inflammation and cell damage induced by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Salmonella typhimurium in embryonal cardiomyocytes. LPS treatment for 72 hours induced transcription factor NF-κB activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release. Moreover, LPS administration induced a significant cell loss, reversed by the NO-synthases inhibitor, suggesting a relationship between cell damage and iNOS-dependent NO overproduction. Cell death was reversed by the specific NF-κB inhibitor, TPCK, whereas COX-2 specific inhibitor determined an increase of cell damage in terms of apoptosis, as observed by YO-PRO immunostaining, DNA laddering analysis and caspase-3 activation. Overall these findings evidenced a selective role for NF-κB in mediating NO-induced cell damage and a protective action by COX-2 in LPS-treated embryonal cardiomyocytes. The reflection of these experiments on human cardiac pathology will be discussed.