The precise neurobiological processes underlying epilepsy and epileptogenesis remain unknown. Animal models have been widely used to investigate the neurobiology, consequences and treatment of epileptic seizures and epilepsy. Small animal Positron Emission Tomography (microPET) can permit assessment of brain metabolic activity in the living animal, which cannot be accomplished by the traditional neuroscience techniques (e.g., histology, immunohistochemistry and autoradiography). It allows investigation of the neurobiological changes during epileptogenesis in the animal models and the variability caused by inter-animal differences can be removed since the same animal is used repeatedly. Moreover, microPET can also be used to investigate the biological effects of novel treatment strategies.