The drug development for neurodegenerative disorders are the major challenge to the science in 21st century. Many FDA approved drugs currently available in the market have limitations in crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB) owing to its complicated vasculature posed by the presence of specialized cells. Nanotechnology is an emerging interdisciplinary area, which have many applications including drug delivery. Nanocarrier drug delivery involves targeting drugs enclosed in a particular polymer and/or amphiphilic lipids. Controlled release, nanoplatform availability for combinatorial therapy and tissue specific targeting by using advanced technologies such as molecular Trojan horse (MTH) technology are the promises of nanotechnology. Different problems are associated with drug delivery across the BBB. Some are mostly related to the structure of brain microvasculature system while the others are related to the nanomaterial structure. Different strategies, such as using polymeric/solid lipid nanoparticles and surface modification of nanomaterial with surfactants like polysorbates have been conducted to solve these limitations. Also, nanodrug formulations with double coatings have been designed for oral delivery of drugs to overcome reticulo-endothelial system and to improve their BBB permeability. It seems that the best choice of strategy and material could be achieved with regard to the physical and chemical structure of the drugs. The present review discusses the potential applications of nanotechnology for drug delivery across the BBB.
Keywords: Blood-brain barrier, nanoneurology, neurodegenerative diseases, polymeric nanoparticles and multiple sclerosis
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