The growing knowledge about genetic influence on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) combined with the recently generated amounts of genomic data hold promise to the identification of new markers for atherosclerotic CVD. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics have now the potential for leading to identification of genetic contributors and therefore to the development of predictive genetic tests that could optimize drugs efficacy and minimize toxicity. Clinical studies have shown that genetic variations within cytochromes P450 (CYPs), 3-Hydroxyl-3- Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (HMGCR) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes influence individuals response to lipid lowering statins. Furthermore, development of antagonists or inhibitors of molecules such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin receptors and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha could be another alternative to prevent atherosclerosis. In addition, novel molecules under the name of biologics including family of peptides such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), urocortin, apelin and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could be considered as new targets for the prevention and treatment of CVD. In this article, we will focus mainly on recent genomic advances in the development of new markers and therapeutic agents for CVD. We present an array of molecules that could have pharmacological benefit for the treatment of heart disease. We also discuss in details new strategies including biologics, which are actually the focus of companies for clinical development of therapeutic drugs. All these efforts provide optimism and attractive promise to cure CVD.
Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides, biologics, cardiovascular diseases, drug target, pharmacogenomics
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