The current interest in micro- and nano- scale devices has lead to their development for biomedical analysis. This ranges from static nucleic acid and protein arrays to complex analytical techniques based on chromatographic and electrokinetic techniques utilizing small-bore capillaries and chips. This review will describe the range of technologies available and examine the different platforms used in micro- and nano-device driven design. Additionally, the review will cover specific devices and device-driven technologies, such as standard and chip-based capillary electrophoresis and nano-flow chromatography that either have potential or are currently available for biomedical analysis. With more laboratories turning towards high throughput, cost effective analytical processes there is a special need for biomedical analysis to be performed at the micro- and ultra-micro level because of limited sample availability. Although limited at present, micro- and nano- technologies have been successfully applied to the examination of not only basic research samples, but also to clinical samples. Currently, micro- analytical techniques hold the potential of being able to examine specialized samples such as single cells and their secretions, extremely small samples from newborn and young patients, precious limited material archive specimens, and perform real-time bedside monitoring.
Keywords: Microfluidics, Bioanalysis, Chip-based CE, Micro-HPLC, Lab-on-a-chip
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