Recent evidence suggests that genetic variation is associated with individual variability in response to treatment with antipsychotics. Although numerous studies have been performed for identification of potential genetic variants affecting response to treatment, initial enthusiasm has been tempered by inconsistent results. Along with some specific methodological issues, another plausible explanation for such inconsistencies is lack of sensitivity of the phenotype (clinical measures) used to define response. In this paper, we review use of Imaging Genetics, a relatively new approach that combines genetic assessment with functional neuroimaging, to explore in vivo neurobiological effects of genetic variation. Moreover, we propose to use Imaging Genetics as a tool to evaluate and predict response to treatment with antipsychotics based on the individual genetic makeup.