Prostate cancer (CaP) is a major health problem in males in Western countries. Current therapeutic approaches are limited and many patients die of secondary disease (metastases). There is no cure for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Targeting tumor-associated antigens is fast emerging as an area of promise to treat late stage and recurrent CaP. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, EMMPRIN (CD147) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that can modify the tumor microenvironment by activating proteinases, inducing angiogenic factors in tumor and stromal cells, and regulating growth and survival of anchorage-independent tumor cells (micrometastases) and multidrug resistance (MDR). CD44 is a multifunctional protein involved in cell adhesion, migration and drug resistance, and is a primary receptor for hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with a critical role in cell signaling and cell-ECM interactions in cancer. Our recent studies indicate both CD147 and CD44 are involved in cancer drug resistance and play very important roles in CaP metastasis. Thus, CD147 and CD44 may be ideal therapeutic targets to control metastatic and CRPC disease. This review will discuss their putative roles in CaP metastasis and MDR, and give an overview of literature regarding their expression on human CaP tissues. Additional focus will be on the potential of therapeutic strategies targeting CD147 and CD44 to prevent CaP metastasis and overcome drug resistance.
Keywords: Prostate cancer, CD147, CD44, multidrug resistance, metastasis, cancer therapy
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