Over the past few years, nanoscience and nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field in which studies on micro- and nanoscaffolding for tissue regeneration have become a focus exclusively. Micro- and Nanocomposite materials that can provide the appropriate matrix environment, integrate the desirable biological cues, as well as provide for the controlled, sequential delivery of multiple growth factors for different stages of the tissue repair process would help fulfill the promise of regenerative medicine. Also the development of relevant scaffold design using suitable biomaterials and incorporation of appropriate biomolecules and the selection of cell types plays a vital role in tissue repair. The present paper intends to illustrate the progress that has been achieved in the important field of scaffolding nanoscience includes primary view on biomaterials such as natural-origin and synthetic polymers, and inorganic biomaterials that might be potentially useful as carrier systems for active biomolecules (growth factors/genes) or as cell carriers for tissue regeneration. We also attempted to discuss the distinctive proteins or growth factors and cells which have been selectively studied for bone, cartilage, neural, skin, vascular and dental regeneration, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing tissue regenerative nanoscience and nanotechnology.