Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) represents a major hurdle for the delivery of bioactives in the brain. It serves as a major constraint for the entry of hydrophilic drugs and the efflux pumps present on its surface restrain the intracellular accumulation of pharmacological moieties in the brain. Nanoparticles (NPs) in this regard can serve as a potential module for ferrying large doses of drugs across the BBB. These can be coated at surfaces or fabricated with a targeting moiety, so as to gain access in the brain thus, minimizing the toxicity of therapy. Therefore, the NPs can serve as an exclusive dais for spatial and temporal distribution of pharmacological agents across the brain, escalating the probability of disease free survival. The current review explores the various possible mechanisms so that the NPs can gain access in the brain viz a viz adsorption, receptor mediated endocytosis, transcytosis, inhibiting p-glycoprotein efflux pump, membrane permeabilization effect and disrupting the BBB. The article also accounts the prospects of NPs to enhance the transport of therapeutic agents across the brain, providing refined drug delivery.
Keywords: Blood brain barrier, nanoparticles, adsorption, endocytosis, P-glycoprotein efflux pump, drug delivery
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