Anti-VEGF drugs may be employed in the surgical treatment of diabetic retinopathy. 1. Prior to surgery. The intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs leads to a significant reduction of neovascularization, with a reduction in the adherence of the fibrovascular complex to the retina. This simplifies viscodelamination and reduces intraoperative bleeding during delamination and segmentation. To minimize the risk of tractional retinal detachment due to the contraction of fibrovascular tissue, vitrectomy must be performed within one week after the injection. 2. To decrease the risk of postoperative bleeding. Recurrent vitreous hemorrhages after vitrectomy are often due to small bleeding from persistent neovascularization. The injection of anti-VEGF drugs at the end of vitrectomy could prevent bleeding from these vessels by blocking the pro-inflammatory stimulus of the surgical procedure. 3. To treat postoperative vitreous hemorrhage. The intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs in patients with postoperative bleeding leads to resolution of the hemorrhage. 4. To treat rubeosis iridis. In eyes with complete panretinal photocoagulation, the combination of cryotherapy and intravitreal anti-VEGF injection in the same surgical procedure produces a disappearance of iris neovascularization together with a long term effect with no recurrences. In neovascular glaucoma, anti-VEGF drugs can also facilitate filtrating surgery.
Keywords: Angiogenesis, Anti-VEGF drugs, Proliferative diabetic retinopathy, Neovascular glaucoma, Vitrectomy, Itravitreal injection
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