One of the upcoming next quests in the field of genetics might be molecular dissection of the genetic and environmental components of human complex diseases. In humans, however, there are certain experimental limitations for identification of a single component of the complex interactions by genetic analyses. Experimental animals offer simplified models for genetic and environmental interactions in human complex diseases. In particular, mice are the best mammalian models because of a long history and ample experience for genetic analyses. Forward genetics, which includes genetic screen and subsequent positional cloning of the causative genes, is a powerful strategy to dissect a complex phenomenon without preliminarily molecular knowledge of the process. In this review, first, we describe a general scheme of positional cloning in mice. Next, recent accomplishments on the patho-mechanisms of inflammatory arthritis by forward genetics approaches are introduced; Positional cloning effort for skg, Ali5, Ali18, cmo, and lupo mutants are provided as examples for the application to human complex diseases. As seen in the examples, the identification of genetic factors by positional cloning in the mouse have potential in solving molecular complexity of gene-environment interactions in human complex diseases.