Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) based mapping and imaging is a fast emerging technology which is being increasingly applied to investigate tissues in the high-throughput mode. The high resolution close to the cellular level, the possibility to determine the bio-distribution of molecules of interest (proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates) without any pre-treatment and the offer to yield molecular structure information have brought evidence that this technique allows to gain new insights in cancer pathology. Thus, several individual mainly protein and peptide cancer markers (“biomarkers”) can be identified from FT-IR tissue images, enabling accurate discrimination between healthy and tumour areas. Optimal data acquisition (spatial resolution, spectral resolution, signal to noise ratio), classification, and validation are necessary to establish practical protocols that can be translated to the qualitative and quantitative clinical routine analysis. Thereby, the development of modern fast infrared imaging systems has strongly supported its acceptance in clinical histopathology. In this review, the necessity of analysis based on global cancer statistics, instrumental setups and developments, experimental state of the art are summarised and applications to investigate different kinds of cancer (e.g., prostate, breast, cervical, colon, oral cavity) are shown and discussed in detail.