Nuclear Imaging of Prostate Cancer with Gastrin-Releasing-Peptide- Receptor Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals

Author(s): H. J.K. Ananias, I. J. de Jong, R. A. Dierckx, C. van de Wiele, W. Helfrich, P. H. Elsinga

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 14 , Issue 28 , 2008

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Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer in men. Evaluating the different stages of prostate cancer with conventional imaging techniques still proves difficult. Nuclear imaging might provide a technique that is able to evaluate prostate cancer, but clinical application has been limited due to lack of accuracy of current radiopharmaceuticals. The development of radiopharmaceuticals that can be targeted to specific antigens, overexpressed in prostate cancer, but sparse in normal tissue, is crucial. Peptides are of particular interest because of their favourable characteristics, leading to increased attention for nuclear imaging of the gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptor (GRPR) with radiolabelled bombesin-like peptides. Several derivatives of bombesin and its truncated form have been prepared for imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET), thereby delivering potent candidates for further clinical evaluation. This article provides an overview of the development and preclinical evaluation of radiolabelled bombesin analogues for in vivo targeting of GRPR in prostate cancer. The effect of the radionuclide, chelator, spacer and unnatural amino acids on affinity, metabolic stability and image quality are discussed, as well as agonistic or antagonistic properties. Potent candidates are proposed based on these selection criteria: (I) high affinity for GRPR, with rapid and specific tumour uptake (II) high hydrophilicity resulting in the preferred renal-urinary mode of excretion and low hepatobiliary excretion, (III) high stability, but relatively rapid clearance from blood. Also, a summary is made of clinical studies that report on the detection of prostate cancer with GRPR targeted radiopharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Bombesin, GRPR, nuclear imaging, prostate cancer, PET, SPECT

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Article Details

Year: 2008
Page: [3033 - 3047]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/138161208786404335
Price: $65

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