Many studies have been conducted on the effects of red wine polyphenols on certain diseases, primarily, coronary heart disease (CHD) and, in this respect, evidence has been demonstrated that intake of red wine is associated with a reduction of CHD symptomatology. In this framework, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the effects of polyphenols on immune cells from human healthy peripheral blood. Data will show that polyphenols are able to stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, the release of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IL-10 as well as immunoglobulins may be important for host protection in different immune related disorders. Another important aspect pointed out in this review is the release of nitric oxide (NO) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), stimulated by red wine polyphenols despite the fact that the majority of studies have reported NO production only by endothelial cells. Release of NO from PBMC may play an important role in cardiovascular disease, because it is known that this molecule acts as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. On the other hand, NO exerts a protective role against infectious organisms. Finally, some molecular cytoplasmatic pathways elicited by polyphenols able to regulate certain immune responses will also be discussed. In particular, it seems that p38, a molecule belonging to the MAPK family, is involved in the release of IFN-γ and, therefore, in NO production. All these data confirm the beneficial effects of polyphenols in some chronic diseases.