Inhibitory receptors of the CD28 family, CTLA-4 and PD-1 deliver negative signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Manipulation of these pathways has been utilized by pathogens and tumors to establish chronic infections or to promote tumor survival. In this review, we examine the role of CTLA-4 and PD-1 in regulating immune response and discuss their therapeutic potential during aging.
Keywords: Inhibitory, T cell, CTLA-4, PD-1
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