We have developed a number of methods that identify efflux pump mediated multi-drug resistant bacteria, characterize efflux systems and screen for inhibitors of efflux pumps. These approaches were complemented by the quantification of the expression of genes that regulate and code for constituents of efflux pumps. The methods described are easy to use, reproducible and for the most part, require instrumentation normally present in a clinical bacteriology laboratory. Because each method provides good reproducibility, they lend themselves for inter-laboratory use.
Keywords: EB based methods, intrinsic efflux pumps, MDR efflux pumps, efflux pump inhibitors, MDR bacteria, fluorometric assay
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