Nanotechnology is an emerging technology seeking to exploit distinct technological advances controlling the structure of materials at a reduced dimensional scale approaching individual molecules and their aggregates or supramolecular structures. The manipulation and utilization of materials at nanoscale are expected to be critical drivers of economic growth and development in this century. In recent years, nanoscale sciences and engineering have provided new avenues for engineering materials down to molecular scale precision. The resultant materials have been demonstrated to have enhanced properties and applicability; and these materials are expected to be enabling technologies in the successful development and application of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is defined as the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Electrospinning is a simple and cost-effective technique, capable of producing continuous fibers of various materials from polymers to ceramics. The electrospinning technique is used for the preparation of nanofibers and macroporous scaffolds intended for drug delivery and tissue engineering. These have special characteristics in terms of fabrication, porosity, variable diameters, topology and mechanical properties. This review summarizes the recent developments in utilizing nanofibers for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.
Keywords: Polymer, electrospinning, nanofibers, stem cells, drug delivery, cell adhesion molecules, tissue engineering
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