Recent findings have demonstrated that the tumor stroma actively contributes to tumorigenesis. The communication of malignant cells and tumor stromal components is orchestrated in part by a network of growth factors. One of these growth factors is transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a secreted multifunctional protein that acts in a highly cellular contextual manner. TGF-β can either stimulate or inhibit the tumor-promoting effects of the different components of the tumor stroma. In this review, we discuss our current understanding on how TGF-β influences different stromal compartments.
Keywords: TGF-β, tumor stroma, CAF, angiogenesis, immune cells
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