Benzo/heterothiadiazine dioxides have been identified as important fused heterocyclic systems possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities and potential pharmacological applications. Recently, a large number of structurally novel compounds derived from these heterocycle scaffolds were identified as antiviral agents. Especially, substituted benzo/heterothiadiazine dioxide derivatives have been shown to inhibit the replication of HCMV, VZV, HCV and HIV. Of particular interest, some potent HCV polymerase inhibitors possess a benzothiadiazine dioxide scaffold, which is critical for the anti-HCV potency through strong hydrogen bond formation of the SO2NH group with the active site of the enzyme, as shown by X-ray crystallography. Also, some compounds belonging to the benzothiadiazine dioxide class have been found to be potent antiviral agents against HCMV and VZV. Moreover, some novel heterothiadiazine dioxide derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated as potential HIV inhibitors with lower toxicity and/or increased activity against drug-resistant virus strains. No systematic review is available in the literature on these thiadiazine derivatives in the design of potent antiviral inhibitors. In this article, we review the recent advances in the antiviral profile of this kind of compounds, as well as the impact of structural modifications and the structure-activity relationship (SAR).
Keywords: Thiadiazine, benzothiadiazine, heterothiadiazine, heterocyclic compound, antiviral, HCMV, VZV, HCV, HIV
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