The status of adipose tissue changes rapidly. From a simple filler tissue, it successively acquires the status of metabolic active tissue, endocrine tissue, plastic tissue, and finally that of a large reservoir of cells suitable for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. All throughout this story, our knowledge has been largely dependent on genetic tools and gene transfer. Now, the time has come where gene transfer in adipose derived cells can be envisioned, not only for understanding the role or importance of one gene, but also to engineer adipose derived cells for the purpose of therapy by delivering secreted products. In this paper, after a brief overview of adipose tissues, a large part will be devoted to the use of virusbased gene transfer in transducing adipose tissue and cells which reside therein. We also critically review the use of adipose “specific” promoters and the applications already described in the literature.